Human rights are the basic rights and freedoms that belong to every person in the world, from birth until death. They apply regardless of where you are from, what you believe or how you choose to live your life. They can never be taken away, although they can sometimes be restricted. These basic rights are based on shared values like dignity, fairness, equality, respect, and independence. These values are defined and protected by law.
Where do human rights come from?
The idea that human beings should have a set of basic rights and freedoms has deep roots in Britain which includes:-
- Magna Carta of 1215
- Habeas Corpus Act of 1679
- Bill of Rights of 1689
Also, the first initiative in the 18th century was taken by Henry Dunant, a businessman. He wrote a book named “A Memory of Solferino” in 1864. In his book, he described his experiences of what he witnessed in the battle of Solferino (A conflict between French-Austrian Forces)
Through his book, he proposed two principles:-
- Voluntary Relief Society states that each country should establish a relief society in times of peace to aid the army and the civilians during the time of war. This principal formed the International Committee of Red Cross.
- International Agreement states that every country should conclude a treaty that would facilitate the activities of the relief societies and guarantee a better treatment for the wounded. This principle formed Geneva Convention which was signed by several countries.
Human Rights violated by the Russian army in Ukraine during the war:-
As the Russian army secures control over some territories in Ukraine, the World Organization against Torture and its Ukrainian partners have documented at least six cases of enforced disappearances and incommunicado arbitrary detention, as well as at least four extrajudicial executions of journalists, human rights defenders and representatives of local authorities in March 2022 alone.
- Grave human rights violations targeting human rights defenders, journalists and activists.
- Grave human rights violations targeting Ukrainian political representatives.
- Grave human rights violations targeting Ukrainian civilians.
- Grave human rights violations targeting Ukrainian women and children in particular.
- Grave human rights violations targeting medical and other educational institutions.
- Soldiers were also implicated in looting civilian property, including food, clothing, and firewood.
The laws related to human rights specifically states that there should be no case of repeated rape; two cases of summary execution, one of six men, the other of one man; and other cases of unlawful violence and threats against civilians Soldiers were also implicated in looting civilian property, including food, clothing, and firewood. Those who carried out these abuses are responsible for war crimes.
Punishment for War Crimes:-
In the International Criminal Court, a prosecutor conducts investigations, and if a case goes to trial, three judges weigh the evidence. If convicted, a person can be sentenced to prison and serve time within a country that agreed to enforce the sentence.
There is no death penalty, but those who are convicted of war crimes or crimes against humanity can be punished with heavy sentences that stretch into the decades, including life imprisonment. Prosecutors can decide to issue an arrest warrant to have someone stand trial in The Hague, but they have no authority to wade into Russia and slap the accused in handcuffs. Still, international pressure and frustration among people dealing with sanctions and the heavy toll of war can result in political shifts that could lead to the removal of those in power.
Human Rights are the basic rights that form the essential part of his/her development as a human being. The Constitution of India acts as a protector of those basic rights as Fundamental Rights and DPSPs. More emphasis has been given to fundamental rights and they are directly enforceable in a court of law.
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(MARCH – APRIL 2022