What is a Quasi-Judicial Body?
A Quasi-Judicial Body is a Non-Judicial body that can interpret the Law. It is a body, for example, an arbitration board or tribunal board, that can be a public administrative agency but also a contract- or private law entity, which has been given powers and strategies similar to those of a court of law or judge, and which is obliged to unbiasedly decide cases and make inferences from them in order to provide the basis for official action. Such actions can cure the situation or impose lawful Punishments.
Powers of Quasi-Judicial Body
Such bodies often have powers of adjudication in such matters as:
- breach of discipline
- conduct rules
- trust in the matters of money or otherwise
Their powers are usually limited to a very specific area of expertise and authority, such as land use and zoning, financial markets, employment law, public standards, and/or a specific set of regulations of an agency. The decisions of such a body are usually made after a quasi-judicial proceeding which may resemble a court.
Differences from Judicial Bodies
There are a few differences between judicial and quasi-judicial bodies which are as follows:
- Judicial decisions are limited by precedent in common law, while quasi-judicial decisions are not really bound;
- Without any precedent in common law, judicial decisions might make new law, while quasi-judicial decisions should be based on conclusions of existing law;
- Quasi-judicial bodies need not consistently follow firm judicial rules of evidence and procedure;
- Quasi-judicial bodies should hold formal hearings provided if mandated to do so under their governing laws, regulations, or agreements;
- Quasi-judicial bodies, unlike courts, might be a party in a matter and issue a decision simultaneously, depending on the specific governing rules.
Generally, decisions of a Quasi-Judicial body require discoveries of facts to arrive at conclusions of law that justify the decision. They typically rely upon a pre-determined set of rules or standards to assess the nature and gravity of the permission or relief looked for, or of the offense committed. Decisions of a quasi-judicial body are many times legally enforceable under the law; they can be challenged in a court of law, which is the last decisive authority.
List of Quasi-Judicial Bodies
The following is a list of some quasi-judicial bodies in India:
- National Company Law Tribunal (NCLT)
- Income Tax Appellate Tribunal (ITAT)
- Assessing authorities under the Income Tax Laws
- National Human Rights Commission
- National Consumer Disputes Redressal Commission
- Competition Commission of India
- Appellate Tribunal for Electricity
- Railway Claims Tribunal
- Intellectual Property Appellate Tribunal
- Banking Ombudsman
- National Green Tribunal
- Central Information Commission
- Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI)
- Reserve Bank of India (RBI)